The Intelligent Trial and Error Algorithm introduced in the paper ‘Robots that can adapt like animals’ (Nature, 2015): the video shows two different robots that can adapt to a wide variety of injuries in under two minutes.
A six-legged robot adapts to keep walking even if two of its legs are broken, and a robotic arm learns how to correctly place an object even with several broken motors.
Full citation: Cully A, Clune J, Tarapore DT, Mouret J-B. Robots that can adapt like animals. Nature, 2015. 521.7553, (cover article).
Source code: https://github.com/resibots/cully_2015_nature
Arxiv (free): http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.3501